A 3D printable and highly stretchable tough hydrogel is developed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) and sodium alginate, which synergize to. Hydrogels are used as scaffolds for tissue engineering, vehicles for drug delivery, actuators for optics and fluidics, and model extracellular matrices for biological. In this investigation, we successfully prepared extremely stretchable, transparent and tough DN hydrogels by using neutral synthetic polymer–poly(vinyl alcohol).

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The hybrid gel was also extremely notch-insensitive. Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels. Fracture and large strain behavior of self-assembled triblock copolymer gels. Photo shows the open lattice of 3-D printed material, with materials having different characteristics of strength and flexibility indicated by different colors.

Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells. On the basis of our experimental findings, we discuss mechanisms of deformation and energy dissipation. Bioinspired fully physically cross-linked double network hydrogels with a robust, tough and self-healing structure. For example, an alginate hydrogel ruptures when stretched to about 1. Leave a comment Cancel reply Email address is optional. Upon hitting the membrane, the ball stretched the membrane greatly and then bounced back.

J Mater Sci Mater Med.

Highly stretchable and tough hydrogels

Improving hydrogels’ toughness by stretchaboe the dissipative properties of their network. Hybrid gels dissipate energy effectively, as shown by pronounced hysteresis. The relatively low fracture energy of a hydrogel of a single network with covalent crosslinks is understood in terms of the Lake-Thomas model [ 8 ].


When the gel is stretched, the short-chain network ruptures and dissipates energy [ 20 ].

Supplelementary Data Click here to view. The new biocompatible tough hydrogel can be printed into diverse 3-D structures such as a hollow cube, hemisphere, pyramid, twisted bundle, multilayer mesh, or physiologically relevant shapes, such as a human nose or ear. In an aqueous solution, the G blocks on different alginate chains form ionic crosslinks through divalent cations e. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

Highly stretchable and tough hydrogels

The composition greatly affects the behavior of the hybrid gel a, Stress-strain curves of gels of various weight ratios of acrylamide and alginate. The ionic crosslinks reform during a period of time after the first loading [ 22 ]. Showing of 29 references.

The idea that gels can be toughened by mixing weak and strong bonds has been exploited in several ways, including hydrophobic associations [ 18 ], particle filled gels [ 715 ] and supramolecular chemistry [ 1722 ]. Hydrogels for soft machines. For the notch in the alginate gel to turn into a running crack, only the alginate chains crossing the crack plane need to unzip, leaving the network elsewhere intact.


National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. When the stretch was small, the elastic modulus of the hybrid gel was 29kPa, which was close to the sum of the elastic modulus of the alginate gel 17kPa and that of the polyacrylamide gel 8kPa. We stretched an alginate-polyacrylamide hybrid gel over 20 times its original length without rupture Fig.

The scope of hydrogel applications, however, is often severely limited by their mechanical behaviour. Here we demonstrate extremely stretchable and tough hydrogels by mixing two types of crosslinked polymers: The tougg declare no competing financial interests. Proc R Soc Lond A.

Zhao, but the demonstration that one can achieve similar mechanical performance with a common biomedical polymer is a substantial rough. The combination of relatively high stiffness, high toughness and recoverability of stiffness and toughness, along with an easy method of synthesis, make these materials an ideal candidate for further investigation.

The internal damage was much better healed by storing the gel at an elevated temperature for some time before reloading Fig.